Spider Mites

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One thing that I have noticed throughout the years in bonsai is that trends seems to come and go with each season. In some years, the summers are nice and hot which the pines and junipers love. Some years are a bit milder, like this year, allowing the deciduous trees a chance to excel. There also seems to be cycles on the more negative side. Ever notice how one year you deal with one weed in the garden and the next year it’s a completely different weed that you have never seen before? It seems to happen to me a lot. The same is true with insects and diseases. One year I battle a disease, the next it’s some new pest. A few years ago, it was an invasion of the Marmorated Stink Bug, and just two years ago the Ash White Fly. Luckily, neither was of much importance to my bonsai. This year and old foe has reared his ugly head in my garden with a voracious appetite. The positively evil Spider Mite.

Spider mites and I go back quite a few years. Whenever I would get my big black pine ready for a show, it would seem to get attacked at the most inopportune time by spider mites. And any attack on a conifer means that you are going to take two to three years to switch out the damaged foliage for new. The damage may be mostly visual, but it certainly is unsightly. Arghhhh! The challenge for me is that mites are so insidious. They always sneak up on me and before you know it, I have a full-blown epidemic. This year they are back and I think the early warm weather we had opened the door; hence the purpose of this article. I want to save you the heartache. This year they decimated a prize Engelmann Spruce and it will take me a few years to rebuild it. More on that later.

I need to make one thing clear before we go any further. There must be no mercy when it comes to spider mites. There is no learning to get along and coexist. Only total annihilation will work. Here are a few statistics to drive the point home. There are several varieties of Spider Mites, which are members of the spider family, but we mostly deal with the red, or two-spotted, spider mite. A female is able to lay up to 20 eggs a day. These will hatch in three days, and can be sexually active by the fifth day. So, if females live two to four weeks, they can lay over 500 eggs each and mite population explodes. This means that before you know it, they have destroyed a tree, at least for that season. They can, and do, kill bonsai. This is not just cosmetic damages. So, no fooling around. We are fortunate in that our wet climate keeps them relatively at bay, naturally.

Photo 1

Photo 1

Take a look at Photo 1. This is the leaf of a Skimmia plant in my back yard. It shows the tell-tale signs of spider mite infestation. Stippling of the leaves which make them look pale and dull.

 
Photo 2

Photo 2

Photo 2 is an Engelmann Spruce and you can see how the color (Chlorophyll) has been literally sucked right out of it. No chlorophyll, no photosynthesis, no tree. Notice also the light webbing, demonstrating the mite’s link to spiders.

 
Photo3

Photo3

Photo 3 is a Douglas Fir from this spring. I have never had them attack a fir before and they went after both of my Doug Figs with abandon. Though not shown, the first tree they went after was an Asian Pear. Go figure. I guess they decided they liked both pizza AND ice These photos also show how the mites sneak up on me. There are not any big holes or wilting foliage to notice. The foliage just slowly changes color over time, and since I have that tinge of color blindness, I don’t always notice right away. And since it has been years since I dealt with mites on my bonsai, it’s not really on my radar. Well, it is now. I seem to sort of scratch my head, hmmm, those leaves are changing color, wonder what that could be. Duh! So, on we go. A few years ago I wrote about lacebugs on azaleas and the damage looks very similar to mites.  

 
Photo 4

Photo 4

So how do we confirm the presence of spider mites? It’s very simple and easy. You may all know this too, so forgive me if I am boring you. We are getting to the solution soon. Take a white sheet of paper (your hand will also do). Hold it under the tree and tap the branches a few times. You will get some detritus landing on the sheet, and probably some small specs. If those small specs are moving, you have mites. If nothing is moving, use your finger to swipe the specs across the page. If there is a smear, then they are alive and well. Rather than being the size of pinhead, they are more like a pinpoint, so very hard to see the body with the naked eye. Photo 4 nicely shows their color, shape, and webbing on a cherry tree. A full-on infestation.

So, if you have made it this far, your reward is near. Spider Mites are one of the few things that systemic chemicals like Imidacloprid with not take care of. Of course, the best defense against any insect or disease is a healthy tree. The spruce that was attacked was definitely weak after last year. You can go online and find all kinds of so-called natural remedies for mites. The problem is the most of them are dealing with landscape plants that have a much higher tolerance than our bonsai. I liken our bonsai to the fighter jets that my dad used to repair. Fighter jets live on the edge and push the boundaries of existence every day. They are regularly called to push to the limits and that is what we do with growing gargantuan trees in incredibly tiny pots.

The trees natural defenses are more limited, so we have to go the extra bit to protect them. I have tried things like Neem oil in the past to almost zero effect. Trying to blast them off with water just means that they are going to go hop onto another tree.  

One thing that I have found very, very effective, as in one hundred percent, is Bifen. Never heard of it? Boon put me on to it and it has been rock-solid for mites. Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid insecticide, as in a synthetic version of the chemicals found in Chrysanthemum flowers. It was originally a termiticide, and I get mine online at pest control sources like, Do My Own Pest Control. You are not going to find this at the big box stores. I just follow the directions for spraying on the label. It’s a lot milder solution than an organophosphates like Orthene/Acephate, which I find damages new, tender growth.  

There is, however, a caveat to any mite solution. Remember how we talked about the rapid reproductive cycle of mites? That means that they can relatively quickly adapt to any chemical solution. To combat that, we have to act quickly and thoroughly. It also means that it’s a good idea to rotate your insecticide after only a couple of uses. So if you don’t knock them out after two or three applications, you may have to switch to something else to be effective. I have had good luck because the infestations have been isolated to certain trees in any one season, thank goodness, and I have been able to eliminate the entire problem quickly.   

You have to stay on it when you start. The development cycle of the bugs is very quick. After hatching they go through several intermediate stages called instars, in which they molt into a new body. Miticides are usually able to only attack adults, eggs, or certain stages of the instars, but not all. This means spraying regularly on a roughly 7-10 day interval so that you are able to stop the cycle, then finish them off before they mature enough to start a new cycle. I am not yet sophisticated enough to tank mix both an adulticide and ovacide together, to do it in one operation. That would require a lot of research and is beyond my scope. But maybe one of you can do that and share. I know that Mirai is using this approach. Good luck and keep an eye out for that little speckling on the leaves.  

Scott Elser

Formal Upright Inspiration

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Living in the great, and I do mean great, Pacific Northwest, it is easy to take for granted the inspiration that is all around us with grand Douglas Firs, muscular Red Cedar, a myriad of true firs and beloved spruces and hemlocks. Those trees are the model for the most difficult and under-utilized style in bonsai, the formal upright. In my thirty some years of bonsai, I have never tried to grow one. Maybe I was too intimidated, or maybe no material really presented itself. I now think that you have to go looking for it. That part aside, I was recently quite surprised by some other awesome examples of formal uprights. My wife Lisa and I have been very blessed to be able to visit several national parks in the past few years and I have been able to report to you what we saw, especially as it relates to our favorite subject, bonsai. If you have made it this far you have probably guessed that we just made it back from another trip, this one to Yosemite, which is almost three quarters of the way to Los Angeles, tucked away in the Sierra Nevada. We tried to avoid the crowds by hitting it after Memorial Day, but before all the school’s let out for the summer. Not sure we were all that successful on that count, but it sure was worth the very, very long drive. We arrived at the park on Monday morning and saw all the famous sites in the valley, like the jaw dropping El Capitan, and iconic Half Dome, as well as Yosemite Falls. They have somewhere between 150-175% of normal snow pack this year. That meant that all of the waterfalls were in full force, thundering away. It also meant that my dream of traversing Tioga Pass over the Sierras would have to wait for another trip, as well as Mount Lassen, and Crater Lake, too. However, on Tuesday we were able to take the road to Glacier Point, which at 7,200 feet overlooks all of the valley, which is a frightening 3,000 feet straight down below you. The road had been closed by snow just the week before. By Wednesday of our trip, the crowds were amassing and after watching two shuttle buses pass us by fully loaded, we headed south out of the valley down to the Mariposa Grove of the Giant Sequoia.

The grove is accessed near the community of Wawona at the southern entrance to the park and we were fortunate to stay at the 140-year-old Big Trees Hotel. It was a great experience, but in 1879 they had no running water in rooms, or air-conditioning, so be forewarned. It was 90 degrees that day, of course. But the real treat was the Mariposa Grove. It has been closed for two and a half years after a fire to rebuild and reorganize the experience. There is now a nice big parking lot with a shuttle bus to take you up the winding road to the hiking trails. Very nice facilities. And we definitely left the crowds behind. As we hiked on our trial (oops, is there such a thing as a Freudian typo?) trail, folks started to drop off rapidly after half a mile and we were left virtually alone. I was in this same grove about thirty years ago, back in my college days. But of course, I was not yet doing bonsai (soon, though) and I didn’t remember a thing. By far the biggest surprise was not the size of the Sequoias, nor their age, etc… It was the fact that they were growing in a very mixed, open forest of many species that were also growing very large. My first real encounter with most of these species, though we do have similar trees in the northwest. I think this is really going to surprise you, so I will work through the list here. But a warning, this is thoroughly conifer country, with just a smattering of black and live oaks.

Incense Cedar – You see this tree in your Christmas garland and wreaths with all of the light-colored pollen tips. It grows very tall and slender in Yosemite, not as bulky as our own Western Red Cedar. Thickly furrowed bark. A wonderful tree.

Sugar Pine – This is frequently mentioned as a construction material for many of the lodges. It has crazy looking branches that look like bent up pipe cleaners.

Ponderosa Pine – not the same variety that you see coming from the Rockies. These are big, tall, and straight as an arrow.

White Fir – Tall and majestic. The branch tips are rather blunted, as if they had just been pruned, giving an odd look. Needles splay out flat, rather like a Grand Fir.

Western White Pine – Fewer of these and I don’t know too much about them.

I also observed in other parts of Yosemite the following species, Douglas Fir, Mountain Hemlock, Jeffrey Pine (close cousin to Ponderosa) Lodgepole Pine, and Red Fir. There were also Black Oaks in the valley, along with Big Leaf Maples. I didn’t see a single juniper the whole trip.

So why did I list all of these species out? For one, all of these giants were living together. Something we can all learn from, I suppose. But more importantly, they were all in bonsai terms, formal uprights. Yet their forms were vastly different, especially as they aged, and most notably in the crown. I thought a photo essay and brief study of what was happening would be useful. The first photo i(below, left) s a very large Sequoia. I was able to get this shot because the path was wide and straight (an old road). Unlike our own Pacific Northwest forests, these areas in the Sierras are very open with almost no undergrowth and very few young trees. Combine that with the fact that many trees had been recently hit by fire or disease, but with their ramification still intact, giving us a great view into the structure of ancient trees. The trail network also ran up a hill, with most of the Sequoia in a long draw, enabling me to get some elevation relative to the tops of trees. Notice that little Y shape down at the bottom left? That’s Lisa, arms outstretched and giving you a little size perspective. Yes, the largest trees on planet earth.

Photo two (directly above) gives you a nice comparison between young and old. Pyramidal saplings at the bottom are surrounded by generations of elders, contrasting the angular uniformity and fullness of youth with the rounded asymmetry of age. The foliage of Sequoias is not unlike that of a juniper or cypress. It is scaled in long strands that come together in billowy tufts.

Photo three (below, left) offers us an interesting comparison. I was taking a picture of the three species in the central part, but later noticed that I got the bonus fourth species on the left. Note that they are almost all the same size, height, and scale. They are from left to right, Ponderosa Pine, White Fir, Sugar Pine, with the crazy branching, and finally, Incense Cedar. Most of these are old, but not yet ancient trees and retain their pointy apices for now. That will change in years to come as they grow older, and more asymmetrical.

 

Photo four (directly right) demonstrates the difference between what I am calling old, or mature, and ancient. Here we have two Sequoias and notice that they are approximately the same height. That is where the similarities end. They are separated in age perhaps several hundred years. The tree on the right is still very symmetrical and slender. The foliage is evenly distributed and crown rather pointed. The Sequoia on the left, in contrast, is much bulkier, both in the trunk and branch thickness. There are gaping holes in the foliage and the crown is very much rounding out.

Photo five is the Grizz,(below, left) and better known as the Grizzly Giant. This is where we start to get interesting and are forced to take another look at what we call old, ancient, or formal upright. The trunk is straight as an arrow, but that is the only thing uniform about the tree. Thick, contorted branches everywhere. It is even growing a new top from a branch. That branch, on the right, is over seven feet in diameter. Craziness indeed, but it’s what the tree has had to do to survive. There is almost no discernable apex or even a branching pattern. It’s all just random, and above all ancient. Not old. Just plain ancient, but it looks perfectly healthy. And yes, that’s Lisa again at the bottom of the photo. Behind her you can see the hollow left from a fire. These trees survive upwards of 800 years because of their ability to resist fire, and recover. An ancient cross section of a fallen giant at the parking lot revealed damage from a fire that the tree then took 117 years to heal over, but it did, and lived another couple of hundred years before falling. An incredible story. The other species in the area do not have nearly as thick or insulating of bark. Throughout the region I noticed that where there had been a fire, just the lower five to ten feet of trunk had burned, but this was enough to kill the tree, but leaving the upper structure intact. There have been some very large and numerous fires in the Yosemite region the last several years and the results have been devastating. The fire that swept through this grove several years ago was just a few yards from where we were standing. In fact, it made the hike a bit warmer, since their shade was gone. But that is the way Sequoias like it, open with no competition.

Lest you think I am going to slight the rest of the species, photo six (above, right) features a nice, mature Ponderosa Pine that I would call old, but not at all ancient. However, you can start to see asymmetry taking hold of the tree as it gets older.

 

Finally, one of the many dead trees revealing its structure. I believe that this was a White Fir by the bark, (directly right) but I won’t argue that it could be something else. The point here is that I saw many of these examples and this one was fairly interesting as it repeatedly divided itself, creating new apices as it was unable to push water any higher, thus limiting its total height. This is how the tree starts to round out its crown and give us a hint into how to construct the same on a bonsai scale.

I hope you have found this interesting and I invite you to search the details in the photos for yourself, as there are more than I can write in this space. This also informs our other styles of bonsai, so there are many insights to be gained. Above all, consider an inspirational trip for yourself.

Scott

Pinch to Grow an Inch

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That’s a familiar saying with absolutely nothing to do with bonsai. Or might it? It certainly recalls to mind Dennis Vojtilla’s rule of thumb. At least my thumb, which works for my larger trees, and is as you guessed, one inch wide. And right now, I am sure that whether we are growing conifers or deciduous trees, we are all in the middle of pinching season. With that in mind, I wanted to remind you about some ground rules on pinching and what we are trying to accomplish with the technique.  

When it comes to spring growth on our trees, we have several choices on how to handle it. The first is maybe not obvious, and probably the least understood. That is, do nothing. Let your tree grow. You might want to do this if you are propagating stock via seeds, cuttings, etc… Or you might be trying to increase the tree, or more specifically, trunk mass. Or we might be growing a single flush, long-needle pine (Ponderosa, White Pine) and if we pinch or prune, we can cause excessive needle elongation. Maybe you are just trying to get a tree healthier and stronger. Whatever the reason, doing nothing at this time of year really is a valid technique. The other things we can do are pinching and pruning.  

When I think of pinching, the very first tree that comes to mind is a Japanese maple and by the time you read this, we are pretty much past the first flush of growth. The idea behind pinching is to remove the central shoot and by doing so we control the strength of the shoot and prevent it from elongating. Pinching controls the inter-node length. It mostly stops elongating once you pinch it. If you miss that window, then you have to fall back on pruning techniques, and if has gotten too long, you have to prune off all that you gained so that you can regrow a piece of ramification to the desired length. And if you are like I was last year and miss that window over and over, pruning again and again, the result is a knob that then has to be pruned off even farther back.  

But all of this assumes one thing. That you pretty much have the “size” and shape of the tree that you want. If you start pinching before the tree is ninety percent there in terms of trunk and major branch structure and size, you are just not going to get there. Pinching slows down development to a crawl, which is exactly what we want for a tree in refinement.  

I got a lot of “feedback” at the last meeting about the lack of pinching in the Deshojo Maple that I displayed. I had to explain to several folks that I was purposefully trying to elongate one side of the canopy, as well as the overall size of the tree. Later, I will work on those branches with pruning. However, I will say that those shoots were longer after the meeting than before. Things were moving quite fast indeed, and those shoots were nipped the very next morning. By the way, with my one-inch thumb, I like to use a small pair of scissors when “pinching”. I can see what I am doing much better and I don’t damage the tender leaves.  

But that brings up the next, very important point. If your tree is not styled, either by wiring or pruning, or whatever, you won’t know what to pinch, or prune for that matter. If the tree is not styled you won’t know if that branch needs to be longer or shorter. Furthermore, the tree really can’t take advantage of your pinching and pruning work.  

I was recently asked if wiring inhibited back budding and my reply was that it was necessary for back budding. When a tree has its branches styled appropriately, each branch will receive the maximum amount of light, or energy from the sun. Styling exposes more branch surface to the sun at an angle of incidence to maximize all those precious rays. It’s really hard to convince the tree that it needs more branches when it is not getting light there to support them.  So how does a tree react to pinching? We’ve taken the strength out of the stronger parts and redirected it to the weaker parts. That’s why we need to pinch over a broad period of time. Shoots can emerge a week or two after the general pinching, or even a month, and we have to keep on top of those. But those shoots were activated or accelerated by the previous week’s pinching exercise. We use pinching to move strength from strong to weak buds.  

However, pinching does not generate new buds. It only strengthens or activates buds that are already there. Need more buds, go back to strategy one. Style it and let it grow, grow, grow. Once it gets strong, it WILL back bud. Then you can think about pinching. This strategy also works well in other species, including conifers like spruce, firs, and short needles pines. It is very effective at balancing strength. I am in the middle of conifer pinching right now. I must use pinching on something like a Doug Fir that is extremely apically dominant. If I don’t, those top shoots hog all of the resources the tree has to offer. My job is to keep that from happening, and redistribute energy. Sort of the socialism of the tree world.  

Heading into May and June we enter the pruning time of year. After the leaves have hardened off, which you can tell by their darkening color, firm attachment to the tree, and general thickening, it’s time to prune. By the way, when we say leaves, we mean broad leaves, needles, and any other foliage types. This is where species are more similar than different. And once again, we are back to just what are our objectives? By not pruning, even if we pinched earlier, we leave the tree with some strength. Again, this is a very valid strategy for building a tree. But if we have new branches that have hardened off and are strong enough, we can prune back to these, always.  

On a deciduous tree, we can usually prune back to any set of leaves and get a second flush of growth. But do not count the first set of “pre-leaves” on a shoot. They may not develop a bud and make sure to leave at least a pair leaves or shoots at any location, or you do not gain any ramification, and you will likely lose too much strength. This is also another way to reallocate strength to another part of the tree. At times, I allow the tree to grow unchecked until May, accumulating energy, and then make my major pruning cuts so that the tree has plenty of strength and time to respond during the summer season.  

You can extend this all the way to the severe “trunk” chop. Just make sure in any case that you provide ample protection from the sun which can now burn leaves, branches or especially trunks if their protective canopy of foliage is removed. For some reason, it took me more than one experience to figure this out and I would like to save you the heartache.  

There are many species specific techniques and timing to pruning and we can’t really go over all of those here. The point of this article is that if you are actively developing trees, whether they are in refinement or developmental stages, you can use pinching and pruning to effect rapid development of your trees. Stay happy, water well, and fertilize!

Scott Elser

Utah Jazz, Part 3. Zion

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This month we wind up our trip to southern Utah with a stop at Zion National Park. Before we left on our trip in October, I talked to a friend who spends the winter months in this part of the world hiking and such, and based on that, I prioritized spending more time in Bryce Canyon and less at Zion. I got it dead wrong. Now not to take anything away from Bryce, but it’s more of a cute fairy land in contrast to the jaw dropping scale and beauty of Zion. Now I know WHY they named it Zion. Of course, that came from the early Mormon settlers, but they got it right. 

We entered Zion from high elevation in the northeast corner, coming from Bryce and Kodachrome. From the moment we entered the park, we began to enjoy a landscape unlike anything we had ever seen. Soaring, huge, beautiful slabs of sandstone in a myriad of formations and colors. Trees dotting these slopes like pepper on your mashed potatoes. And more Utah red rock and Utah blue skies. 

The road wound around through a maze of mountains and cliffs. We stopped for a photo op of Desert Bighorn Sheep. Then stop. What’s this, a line? This must finally be the famous tunnel. We take a quick break and then see cars coming from the opposite direction. Time to jump back into the car and we start rolling. The tunnel was built back in the twenties, so there is only room for one-way traffic with our modern trailers and motorhomes. We pass the guard and enter the tunnel and click clack along. The road starts to curve and wind. Down we go, dotted with the occasional window in the rock. It goes for 1.1 miles but seems longer.  

Nothing I say can prepare you for what comes next. The road simply opens out at the base of a thousand-foot cliff, with a view of the entire Zion valley that sucks the breath right out of you. Partly because you are immediately plunged into steep switchbacks to descend another 500 feet to the valley floor. I am including some photos, but nothing I have done can capture the 360-degree experience. 

Since we went in October, I can’t imagine what the summer must be like, with heat and many times the number of travelers. Actually, I can, since I barely got reservations a month ahead to stay in the lovely little town of Springdale. We are not really campers these days, so the town was perfect, with many places to stay and eat, along with galleries and craft emporiums around every corner. We really wanted more time to explore there. The town butts right up to the entrance of the park and each has their own shuttle system. Both are free. You stay at a motel, which are generally more expensive the closer you get to the park, then just take a shuttle back and forth as there is really only one road in town. We hop off at the end of the shuttle line in town, walk across the parking lot, entering the park again, and jump on the park shuttle to sightseeing and the lodge. 

You are unable to drive into the main Zion valley in your car at any time except the winter. If you have been to very many parks, you are probably used to this by now and it makes things easy and enjoyable.We made a quick afternoon/evening run into the valley and did a little hiking. Like any stream laden valleys, it is lined with all sorts of deciduous trees in a flat plain. We hiked up the famous Zion Narrows but stopped where the trail ends and wading begins. That hike we are saving for the next trip when we bring our boots and waders and have more time.

The Watchman at sunset, viewed from in town

The Watchman at sunset, viewed from in town

Majesty – The grandeur and majesty of Zion. This is what it looks like everywhere you turn.

Majesty – The grandeur and majesty of Zion. This is what it looks like everywhere you turn.

Angles – The sandstone in Zion often looks like God just smashed a bunch of rocks together.

Angles – The sandstone in Zion often looks like God just smashed a bunch of rocks together.

Zion Slope – Trees emerge straight out of the sandstone slopes.

Zion Slope – Trees emerge straight out of the sandstone slopes.

Desert Bighorn – A group of Desert Bighorn sheep.

Desert Bighorn – A group of Desert Bighorn sheep.

Zion Pinyon 1 – Pinyon Pine emerging from the sandstone.

Zion Pinyon 1 – Pinyon Pine emerging from the sandstone.

Zion Pinyon 2 – Perfect bonsai inspiration in a Pinyon.

Zion Pinyon 2 – Perfect bonsai inspiration in a Pinyon.

Live Oak – Foliage of a small Live Oak, unknown variety.

Live Oak – Foliage of a small Live Oak, unknown variety.

Cacti – it’s that dry

Cacti – it’s that dry

Viewpoint Trail – The Overlook Trail. The trail follows the base of the red rocks. The catwalk can be seen at the middle left of the photo where it swings out, then under the rocks.

Viewpoint Trail – The Overlook Trail. The trail follows the base of the red rocks. The catwalk can be seen at the middle left of the photo where it swings out, then under the rocks.

Zion Tunnel – The Zion Tunnel as seen from the Overlook. You can see the zigzag switchbacks in the road and where it enters the mountain at the base of the cliff on the left.

Zion Tunnel – The Zion Tunnel as seen from the Overlook. You can see the zigzag switchbacks in the road and where it enters the mountain at the base of the cliff on the left.

Overlook View – The view from the Overlook. The view is much wider than this. It has been compressed with a wide angle lens to get it all in

Overlook View – The view from the Overlook. The view is much wider than this. It has been compressed with a wide angle lens to get it all in

The next morning, we were able to head out early and drive back up on top where we had entered the park the previous day. Doing our research, our first destination was the Overlook Trail. Sounds promising, eh? The trail starts right where the tunnel begins. Be prepared. This is the most enjoyable short hike I have ever been on. Now to frame that, I love trees, I love the outdoors, I love exploring new vistas and scenery. 

The trail is not hard and we made it out and back in an hour, with a twenty-minute layover to boot. The trail winds around a steep canyon, including a catwalk out over the canyon that swing back under an overhang. Around every turn there was an interesting tree (both deciduous and conifers) or interesting rock to scramble across, or a great view into the jagged canyon. The trail then gently climbs over a saddle to reveal the entire Zion valley as a reward. You see where the tunnel emerges from the cliff and realize how big that mountain really is. You can almost see both ends of the tunnel at once. The top is also broad enough to invite more exploring of trees, rocks, and scenery and open enough that no path is needed. Seeing the trees growing in these environments is simply marvelous and bonsai inspiring. I hope you get to make the journey soon.  

Repotting 

And just so that we can ease our way back into actual, applicable bonsai, here are a few thoughts on repotting. First of all, once you get all of that work done to get the tree safely into a bonsai pot, take care of it. Do not let it freeze. The act of repotting has taken away much of its winter hardiness, so they must be protected. 

Secondly, give a very good watering after repotting, until the mucks washes away and water runs clear. Then don’t water until it needs it. That might be a week or more in our weather. The tree’s uptake system has just been pruned back, so it is not able to absorb as much moisture. It is sort of like cutting the sponge in half. It will only take half as much now. As the tree reestablished itself, it will tell you it needs more by drying out a little. The last thing we want to do is drown the roots and start a cycle of decay that is hard to break. Give it just what it needs.  That means no fertilizer for a month either. Not only are you wasting it, and your time, the tree can possibly suffer. So, hold off for a bit. I always try to keep my trees out of the rain by putting them under the eaves for a week or two after repotting to make sure they don’t get too wet and this is a great jump start for the new tree/pot/soil system. If you are able to provide bottom heat, that would be even better.  

Scott Elser

Utah Jazz, Part 2. Kodachrome Basin

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Last month’s article on our trip to Utah, specifically, Bryce Canyon, has generated more buzz, or jazz, than any article in the Tips column so far. Thanks for the great feedback and support. I hope you get to make the trek someday. This month we pick up the trail from Bryce and head just a half-hour southeast to a much lesser known park, Kodachrome Basin State Park. And just in case you are wondering, yes, they have approval to call it that, which it well deserves. Most of that half-hour drive is seeing the Bryce Canyon from the bottom end and it’s a pleasant little jaunt. A friend back home who frequents this area put us onto it. 

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Kodachrome Basin is home to more sandstone formations, but it has portions of harder rock. So not only do you get the hoodoos that occur in Bryce, but you get these formations they call pipes rising from the softer sandstone. They were usually white and cylindrical in nature. There are a full 70 of these pipes that rise up to 170 feet in the park and as stupendous as they were, my full attention, or at least 90% of it was on the trees. My wife Lisa said, you can’t take pictures of all of them, but ahhhh, I can try! But more about that in a minute. 

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Since we were short on time for such a beautiful place, a quick glance at the map and we decided to take the Angels’ Palace Trail. This trail is only 1.5 miles long and 150 feet gain in elevation. There are several other very worthy trails in the park, but the choice of this one was serendipitous. From the parking lot we crossed the road and immediately forded a small stream and started picking our way through a very narrow but not too tall canyon. Visions of an ambush around each corner, ala Butch and Sundance, were dancing in my head. 

It had been raining the two days prior, during our visit to Bryce, but now the clouds had lifted and there was this very recognizable Utah blue to the sky. It’s very interesting how distinctive it was. Sort of like Oregon gray. The result was a bit of mud and muck on the trails to avoid. This type of sandstone, so typical in southern Utah, is called slickrock. When it’s wet, you easily find out how it got the name. 

In just a few minutes of scrambling we were out on top of the formation, with views of the surrounding park areas. By the way, we would have loved an all-wheel drive car on this trip. Our little rental sedan forced us to abort a trip to a second trail in the park due the muddy road. 

Out on top, I immediately began to spot gorgeous trunks of Pinyon Pine and Utah Juniper around every corner. The thing is, they were relatively small. A few were definitely in bonsai range, and the rest were larger, but less than 8 feet tall. They were in a size range that I could easily relate to bonsai. 

That’s when I went photo crazy. Snap here and snap there. I really could not turn around without seeing another, and another. I think the thing that struck me the most is how similar the trunks were on the two species. The same sort of warping and distressing had happened on either one. 

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This whole area on top is a semi-level but irregular shaped plateau that you are free to explore. I walked out onto a narrow outcrop that was about a 100 foot drop down each side, on which Lisa refused to accompany me. In a later description she claimed it to be a mere two feet wide, but photos proved that it really was a very safe ten feet wide. I say very safe, but I was being very careful as I tiptoed out on the loose gravel. These days, I am very conservative myself. We were able to wander around about 45 minutes before heading down the same trail that we came up. A very quick and tasty trip with lots of sights. Minute for minute, the best bonsai inspiration of the whole trip. 

Next month, the last stop in the trip, Zion National Park. 

Scott Elser

Utah Jazz, Part 1. Bryce Canyon

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This month’s article is likely to turn into more of a photo essay rather than hard core bonsai knowledge. What it is meant to be is bonsai inspiration. More than that, I am planning on a three-part series, so strap yourselves in for the dreaded family slide show. It may seem strange that I am including photos of myself, or my wife, Lisa, but when I do it is solely for scale. So, what brought me to this? A wedding. Two years ago, Lisa’s cousin’s daughter Alicia married in Scottsdale, Arizona and after we attended that event, we headed north to the Grand Canyon, which I reported in these pages. 

Fast forward to this October when Alicia’s younger sister Emily married her beau in Sedona, Arizona, land of the red rock. So, of course we took the opportunity to take in a few more National Parks, heading north above the Grand Canyon and crossing into Utah. Almost twenty years ago I postponed my trip into this area of southern Utah to take one of Boon’s intensive courses. That led to three years of study with Boon, which is really what catapulted my bonsai world. A fair trade indeed. But now it was time to resume the trail to the deserted, desolate world of beauty and wonder that national parks of Utah hold. 

Emily’s outdoor wedding barely escaped a heavy thunderstorm the night before and as we headed out of Sedona, it was still raining. We drove north through the stupendous Oak Creek canyon and on to Flagstaff. We were fortunate to avoid a 200-mile detour from a washout earlier in the week. Crews had just repaired the road a day before our drive. As we drove, there were fewer and fewer trees. 

Nearing Page, Arizona, I spotted small sign that said Horseshoe Bend. To the left across the highway through barbed wire fence there was a gravel road across the dry grass with a bunch of cars parked about 200 yards away. I thought, could it be? Naw, can’t. But if it is, I can’t possibly drive by, so my blinker went on and we dove in for the adventure. Not knowing exactly what was going on, we struggled to find a spot to park amid the tour buses and cars parked in the red sand. Then we spotted the long line of folks trudging up the barren hill. The busloads of Asians were great. One guy spent five minutes as we were parking making sure that his hair was just right. Others were trekking out in the desert in their snuggies and slippers, while there was still drizzle in the air. 

When we got to the top of the hill, I could see that we were in the right place, but the view point was another quarter mile down across the swale, with hundreds of folks passing each other back and forth. Our destination was Horseshoe Bend, where the Colorado River makes a 270-degree turn, almost reaching back to touch itself. But the thing is, it’s about a thousand feet down to it! I had seen it many times in photos while doing research for work, but with conflicting info, I had no idea what state or river it really was. And here I am, all of a sudden standing at its edge. The distortion in the photo comes from the fact that I had to use a wide-angle lens to get it all in. I have some great, clean shots, but this one shows you just how awesome the view was. It is the single most impressive site I can remember seeing, and it was just an impromptu minute off the road. It was the unexpected delight of the trip for me. But enough of rock and water. We need to see some trees! 

Horseshoe Bend of the Colorado. 1000 feet to the bottom. 270 degree turn.

Horseshoe Bend of the Colorado. 1000 feet to the bottom. 270 degree turn.

Now we were back on the road again to Bryce Canyon. We drove all day through a bleak landscape, going hours at a time without seeing trees of any kind, or at least it felt that way. Then we would see empty stands where native Americans sold their wares during the summer and realized this was the land they were left with and expected to survive on with zero resources. A sobering moment indeed. 

It was still raining when we arrived at our little cabin after dark. The next morning as we drove into the park, it began to snow. Would we even see the canyon? We retreated to the visitor center, then decided to make a go of it. 

On our first stop, we decided to go for broke and hike into the canyon. It was an otherworldly experience and the only way to really appreciate what the canyon was like. From above, Bryce is just peering over the edge like the Grand Canyon, but on a much smaller scale. But that smaller scale means that you can access its beauty on foot and it isn’t really apparent until you get down into Bryce. 

It rained our whole hike, so the photos were marred with raindrops, but our spirits were high. The canyon like the rest of southern Utah is sandstone. But the stuff here is soft and eroding, leading to the formations that we see. I started snapping pictures almost non-stop. The trees seemed like the original inspiration for exposed root style bonsai – as they grew larger, the grounds slowly diminished below them. 

Part of Bryce Canyon. The trail we took can be seen meandering in the middle of the photo.

Part of Bryce Canyon. The trail we took can be seen meandering in the middle of the photo.

A Pinyon Pine with the sandstone crumbled away, leaving the roots exposed

A Pinyon Pine with the sandstone crumbled away, leaving the roots exposed

A Ponderosa Pine with more exposed roots. What a great bonsai example

A Ponderosa Pine with more exposed roots. What a great bonsai example

Getting up close and personal to the rock formations

Getting up close and personal to the rock formations

More great Bryce scenery on the trail

More great Bryce scenery on the trail

Foliage of Utah Juniper with berries

Foliage of Utah Juniper with berries

The orange is mistletoe on a Utah Juniper

The orange is mistletoe on a Utah Juniper

Yes, this was the climb out of the canyon. Over a dozen switchbacks

Yes, this was the climb out of the canyon. Over a dozen switchbacks

We were hiking in a fairy land with impossible formations of both rocks and trees abounding. I think that most were Ponderosas and Utah Junipers. At higher elevations there were Doug Firs, and some Pinyons, too. I just can’t stress enough how inspirational this all is to a bonsai person – to any person. You can see a few of the hundreds of photos that I took that morning, and they will explain some of the awe and wonder we experienced. 

We never knew what the next turn would yield walking around and between all these formations with tunnels and switchbacks. We spent the rest of the day, driving along the rim up to Rainbow point, which at 9,000 feet is getting pretty high, and there was definitely snow there. On our return, I was trying to check out Inspiration Point, with the mega-view, but the wind was blowing so hard that the snow was coming up the canyon into my face so that I couldn’t even peer over the edge. But then a half hour later, I got some great light for some great photos. It can be so unpredictable. 

If you haven’t guessed, my purpose here is to get you to go, get out. See. Explore. Make a connection to the outdoor world. It is really helping me pursue and define the type of bonsai that I really want to do. Something that is expressive of wild nature and the land that we are blessed to live in. Next up will be a trip just a half hour down the road from Bryce to Kodachrome Basin, which is very aptly named. There will be a lot more photos of trees in that installment! 

Scott Elser

Deciduous Tree Development

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After last month’s presentation on developing deciduous bonsai, I thought it would be great to review some points and amplify others. While reflecting after the meeting, I realized what I was providing was a very wide overview of the process, but it was akin to talking about Junipers, Pines, and Spruces all at once. There is a lot of variety and nuances to deciduous trees that we were not permitted to even touch on, so I wanted to mention some other great sources of information that you might want to review to expand on the concepts that we talked about. 

First off, there is the article from this column called Bonsai From the Ground Up, where I talk about some of my experience with field growing trees in the backyard. You can find it on the BSOP website under Resources; Scott’s Branch Tips. There are also two programs on Ryan Neil’s Asymmetry pod casts, via Mirai Bonsai. On one, Ryan talks deciduous development with none other than our own Dennis Vojtilla, and on the other he talks with Chris Kirk and Gary Wood on field growing techniques and strategies. They make great listening while working on your trees. 

We started our conversation last meeting with the acknowledgment that you can’t just go collect a great deciduous tree, like you might a conifer, or run to your local shop and expect to find really great material. The most dependable method is to simply grow them yourself. It follows then, that the earlier you start in a tree’s life, the more success you will have. Nothing beats the movement that you can put into your trees when you start with seedlings or rooted cuttings. That initial movement is so important. No matter the tree species, conifer or deciduous, I never allow a tree to grow straight out of the soil. It always emerges at an angle. And that means that I am already working on the root structure that is so critical for deciduous trees. 

It definitely means some root pruning and if there is a tap root, or an overly strong root of any kind, this is the best time to give it its walking papers. It’s gotta go or the whole tree suffers. So be ruthless. Better to make a hard cut now, than to set the tree back after ten years of hard work. Grow the tree in a pot for a couple of years to get that movement and root based established before moving it to the ground. If it grows too fast, at least it grew with great curves. 

Straight trunks, no matter what size, don’t really have a place in my garden. When you make curves, think of the size of tree that you want to make. A large tree requires larger curves. A shohin tree may only move an inch or two to one side or the other while a larger tree might shift almost a foot in any one direction. Don’t forget to make it move in three dimensions – front to back as well as sided to side. Also, wire well beyond what you think you will want. The extra length will actually help you bend the sections you desire and provide you with a bit of cushion for shape. You never know for sure how a tree will develop. You can make the decision of where to cut it next season. 

When you are ready to enter the next stage of development, you can move up to a larger pot, place the tree in a wooden box, or plant it in the ground. Things grow many times faster in the ground, but that is not always helpful. If you want a large, bulky, masculine trunk, it will really help. However, it is much more difficult to manage that growth while it’s in the ground. If you want a more delicate, feminine line, it may be better to employ a wooden box or larger pot that you can watch on the bench. Boxes are an underutilized tool, especially by me.

You can also use them to rejuvenate a lagging tree. 

So now that your tree is well on it’s way and things are growing along and the trunk is getting the proportions you desire, it may be time to make a big cut and redirect the growth in a new direction. This of course does two things – it builds good taper into the design as well as introduces more movement. The tricky part here is to not slow the tree down. That’s why I never prune heavily until I have a branch of sufficient diameter to take over the sap flow where the cut is. This can be very subjective, but as a rule of thumb we might say that it needs to be at least 20% of the size of the main trunk. If it’s not, then let it grow some more. 

And never rely on just a bud. They can easily wither away and then you are back to square one. The main point here is to not cut right where you want it to end, but rather at least one trunk diameter above the new leader branch. This will allow the tree to compartmentalize the wound. The following year you can reduce it either to where you want, or to where the tree has died back. This is a much, much safer technique and leads to complete healing of scars and predictable results. Do this process as many times as you need until you have your desired results.

You may have a tree in the ground from 3-10 years, so you will have plenty of time to practice. I used worked on my trees in the ground twice a year in order to get what I wanted. 

Be sure to keep working on the roots. I like to prune roots every other year. This allows the tree to really gain some strength from growing in the ground but limits certain roots from growing too fast and sapping strength from the others. We are looking for balance. That way, when we pull it out of the ground or a wooden box, we can move it right into a bonsai container. Happy growing!

Scott Elser

What I have learned from Mirai Live

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Well, it’s been a good year and a half since Ryan Neil’s Mirai Live launched at BSOP. I had eagerly awaited this development and decided to bite the bullet and sign up for the full, Tier 3 membership. That means that I can go back and view old videos, take part in the Q&A, or whatever they might be offering. I began to think back about all that I have learned in that past year and a half and it is astounding. Not that it should surprise you, as the content is awesome. Ryan has a way of breaking down ideas, principles, and techniques into an easily understood manner.

But, you need a little background into the aforementioned learning. I was fortunate to be in Ryan’s very first Defining Concepts – Pine series. This is where he began to develop his teaching style and curriculum. We used a small white board and met in the tiny original studio in the converted garage. Just three of us and it was awesome. I went on to take a series every other year on Junipers, then elongating species, and finally, special studies. I drank the Kool-Aid, so to speak, and my bonsai have never been the same. 

I had previously taken an entire study course with Boon – ten three-day sessions, which also had a tremendous effect on my bonsai experience, catapulting me upwards to finally grasp bonsai at a high level. So with all of this experience, both with Ryan and Boon, my jaw has just about dropped to the floor over the last 18 months as to what I have learned and assimilated. Lots and lots of loose ends tied together and flagging ideas shored up. 

Then there are the brand-new ideas. I can’t really list them in order of importance, but many of them are just, duh, it was there the whole time. Did I not listen the first time? Or in many instances, it is brand new technology and thought applied to bonsai. Either way, after almost 30 years of very actively pursuing bonsai, I really have some tools to take another leap forward. But be forewarned, that usually means more time and energy spent. Most of these are NOT time saving techniques but rather principles to take design and horticulture to a higher level. I can really only mention the general subject matter. I am making no attempt to explain them. That’s Ryan’s job, and he does it well. This kind of information is not free, but it’s, oh, so worth it.

1.     Always prune leaving at least two buds. Duh. Pruning a Japanese maple makes this automatic, but not alternating species like hornbeam and beech. I kept pruning my beech back to one bud every year to keep it in check, but in the process, I ended up with long and leggy branches, losing ramification. Not anymore.

2.     The purpose of pinching, to redirect strength. Small to medium to weak. Ah, got it.

3.     The continued important of water and oxygen balance. Can’t be understated. I understand why some of my trees were strong and others weak. Now they are stronger than ever. This should probably be number one in importance on this list.

4.     The difference and timing between foliar growth and vascular growth. I knew about this, but now I know how and when it works and use it to my advantage.

5.     How to apply large wire. I have used more 4-gauge copper than just about anyone in BSOP and now it’s a lot easier. I saw old videos of Kimura wiring when I was at Boon’s, and noted what he was doing, but didn’t know why. Now I do. My hands love you Ryan.

6.     Less is more with wire. Already a concept I learned from Ryan on wiring, but it has been so great to be able to zoom in and see exactly how he works his hands. Less wire means 

more time for me and a more natural appearance.

7.     Using foliage mass to power root development when repotting raw stock BEFORE styling the tree.

8.     Detailed application of fertilizer.

9.     Unlocking the secrets of Douglas Fir. I have two buds on every single branch on both my large Dougs, after pruning. And no more die back. STUPENDOUS. Ryan dug this out and developed the technique himself. Won’t get it anywhere else.

10.  Unlocking the subtleties of long and short-needled pines. Too much to go into, but the clarification on timing, fertilization, watering, and purpose has been great.

11.  Timing of late season pruning on multi-flush pines to generate predictable buds.

12.  How to accomplish rock and slab plantings. Just in time for me to perch an Engelmann on a basalt slab I have been carrying around for over 35 years.

13.  Detailed application of raffia – where and when, refining my technique.

14.  When to prune my redwood for great results.

15.  OK, I have to stop somewhere, or I will never finish.

Suffice it to say that most of these that I mention are adding on to my existing knowledge and technique. Mostly, it’s learning how to manipulate the biology of the tree to get what I am after. Now it might seem like this is an article-long advertisement for Mirai Live. That’s not my intent and you can spend your money and time as you wish. But, if you want to take your bonsai to the level of art, this is going to really add to your arsenal of tools. 

If you are like many folks who attended the Rendezvous and don’t have the advantage of having a club like BSOP that offers great basic classes or can’t afford or get into regular classes with folks like Ryan or Mike Hagedorn, this is a must and a steal. So much information for so relatively little price. I had to pay for airfare back and forth to Oakland to study with Boon, along with the study fees and hotel! But this I get it in the comfort of my own home and on my own time. And I can go back and review when needed, which I have done. I never had any concept of knowing it all, but I didn’t realize that there was so much more that I could know. That it didn’t have to be a mystery and it wasn’t just happenstance.

One last word. Q&A’s. Usually once a week, Ryan goes to the white board and answers questions live. He is up to number sixty or so now. That’s over sixty hours of just answering questions. They are indexed by topic in each session, so you can somewhat search for what you are looking for. This is the hidden gem in the whole thing. I have asked a few questions myself. Some questions come up over and over and Ryan handles them adroitly and politely. These Q&A’s really help cover what isn’t addressed in the main streams and allows him to talk about other species, other hemispheres, or differing climates. It also makes him the epicenter for the transfer of bonsai knowledge around the world.

Ok, enough on that. Darn him. Now my trees take even more effort, but they are rocking forward on a fast track and I now have the tools for artistic expression through bonsai. Have fun viewing.

Scott Elser

Mid-season Pruning

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There will always, always, be a place for a Japanese Maple on my bench. If I could have but one tree, that might be it. It would be a tough battle though, with pines. The varieties and types of maples abound, and there are lots of techniques out there for handling them. The goal for refining any Japanese Maple is to create a light and airy feeling full of grace and suppleness, even when growing a rather masculine or stumpy shohin, the branches are still delicate. These trees naturally grow in the mountains of Japan. We have our own vine maples which grow from the sea to the cascade crest and they will help inform the graceful shape of a maple. I was recently in downtown Lake Oswego and saw perhaps the largest specimen of Japanese Maple that I have ever seen with a trunk diameter probably over 24 inches. It was like unto a towering oak. The reason I mention it is to say that we can find substantial examples of mature trees to observe and learn from. 

I have several varieties of Japanese maples. Without a doubt, my favorite is just the plain, standard species with its delicate and lovely green leaves. I have about a dozen from shohin to medium and large size trees that I am growing from scratch. Other varieties include a Shishigashira (Lion’s Mane) that was begun by Edris Stryker, and a red Deshojo developed by Anne Spencer. Lastly, I have a pair of Okushimos that were started from cuttings. All of these trees have their pluses and minuses, and their own unique growth habits. So that is the subject of this month’s Branch Tips. 

The standard operating procedure for Japanese Maple care when I first started, that was touted in all of the books, was to entirely defoliate the tree in late spring or early summer. The goal was to create a second flush of growth with shorter inter-nodes and smaller leaves. There are several problems with this technique. First of all, if your tree is not strong enough, you might kill it, or at the least lose some branches. Enough said there. Secondly, if you have pencil size trunks and you perform this technique, they will remain pencil size indefinitely. No one ever told me to do it AFTER you get it to the size you want. This is a maintenance technique, not a development one. And thirdly, you risk burning the trunk or branches and doing permanent damage to the tree. So, entire defoliation is a bad idea. I can’t think of a situation where I would recommend it. 

Then along came Boon and offered a big upgrade to this technique. Instead of removing all of the leaves, remove one leaf from every pair across the tree, cutting across the petiole. You can leave both leaves on weak interior shoots. If you have particularly strong leaves, you can cut the outer portions off to reduce the solar surface area. The effect is twofold; first, since you have only removed half of the foliage, the tree is not forced into making new shoots and is happy to live the remainder of the season with what it has, and secondly, it reduces the amount of sugars and starches being produced. This keeps the branches from thickening too much and becoming coarse, preserving the light and airy feeling that we cherish so much in maples. Be  sure to be aware that although all maples have an opposite branching habit, they alternate in orientation. This is to say that one set of buds aligns vertically, the next set horizontally. Ideally, they would all align laterally, so keep this in mind when pruning. If the inter-nodes are really short, then you have some options to choose the orientation that you need. This has become my de facto standard technique for maintaining already developed maples, and many other deciduous trees as well. 

So this technique is all well and good for regular, species maples, but the varieties that I mentioned above present some unique growth habits that require us to alter our technique. The general idea is to create a short inter-node (recalling Dennis Vojtilla’s rule of thumb – about ¾ to 1 inch) and we do this by pruning back to the first set of leaves on a maple. Since they produce opposite pairs of leaves, there is always a fork or bifurcation at any node we prune to. When we come to a species like Shishigashira, which grows very slowly, the nodes may only be 1/8 inch apart, or virtually absent. If we continually cut back to the first node, we get nowhere, and the nodes are too close. Here we do the opposite of all of your bonsai training. We cut the leaves on the inner shoots closest to the trunk and leave the pair of leaves at the point where we want the next set of branching, which is most often the very last pair. This can be tedious work but leads to a ramification that develops more quickly and is more maintainable in the long run. 

Our next guest on the turntable is the Deshojo variety. This is an older cultivar and has beautiful deep coral foliage in the spring as shoots emerge that contrasts beautifully with the mature white bark. There is nothing quite like it. Alas, the foliage the rest of the year causes one to wonder why you are growing it in the first place. It’s sort of a mottled, drab, greenish affair. It also happens to be a fairly weak grower, like many of the special varieties. It often has droopy foliage and only a few elongating shoots. For this specimen, I still remove every other leaf, but I leave more leaves in the weaker areas, like the lower branches and interior shoots. I wire up the weak shoots so that they can get more light and gain enough strength to hold themselves up and I make sure to not remove any leaves, except to shorten the overall length. This process has really improved the overall health and strength of the tree. 

I can detect no graft union in either the Deshojo, or Shishi but they are often propagated by this method. Most special varieties do not propagate true from seed, and they often have a weaker growth habit necessitating the need for the graft onto the stronger, species stock. An exceptions to the rule are the two Okushimo trees that I have been growing, like forever. Both were from a set of about ten, two-year old rooted cuttings by Wright’s Nursery, which is no longer in existence. Two each of five species. I won them in a raffle at my very first convention, in 1990, before I was even a member of BSOP. Maples are difficult to root from cuttings, so these are very much an anomaly. That is borne out by the fact that the other eight trees died within two years. That may also reflect in my lack of skill, but I did keep everything else alive. These two grow really slowly. I had them in the ground for several years and they barely grew. I gave one to my grandfather and it passed back to me when he died. They have the strangest leaves, which are not to everyone’s taste. But I like ‘em. Since they were grown from cuttings, the roots emerged on just one side, so I have in-arch grafted species roots to fill in the bases. In all that time, these trees are still only an inch and half in diameter. They are growing stronger than ever though. They really want to send all the energy to just a few shoots, so I use pruning to redirect that strength more evenly. 

Lastly, I would like to mention our own native Vine Maple. I love these guys too. These are the closest relatives to Japanese Maples outside of Japan. Try the same techniques, but a few words of caution. They prefer dappled sunlight in the summer. They naturally grow in the margins of the forest to deeper shade. I keep mine in full sun in the spring until sometime in June, then it’s under cover. These trees are coarser than their Japanese cousins, so they tend to get very thick and long inter-nodes if allowed to rage on. 

When I prune in late spring to early summer, I sometimes cut off entire nodes because they have gotten too long or heavy. I take off every other leaf on the rest. During this pruning I make sure to space out the remaining leaves such that there is equal distribution to light. This requires a little thinking ahead and watching the area as much as an individual shoot. There is also a large discrepancy in leaf size, so I often resort to cutting off the exterior leaf mass to make them more equal. 

I even showed this tree in the fall after cutting the leaves down to size but matching the overall leaf shape with five points. No one noticed! In situations where the whole shoot has been pruned, the tree responds with new shoots. In the long distant past when I entirely defoliated the vine maples, they just sat there the rest of the season and waited until the next spring to grow again. Be aware of that thought but temper it with the fact that I did not fertilize much and they were very small trees growing on a rock – not many resources. Now that the tree is in refinement, that drastic technique is not needed. 

So jump in and prune your maples to direct development and protect them a bit after you do so. Stay cool.  

Elongating species Japanese Maple in development. Let it grow!

Elongating species Japanese Maple in development. Let it grow!

Okushimo. These leaves are certainly unique

Okushimo. These leaves are certainly unique

Deshojo Maple. Note the red leaves, just like spring growth, that emerged after flush pruning.

Deshojo Maple. Note the red leaves, just like spring growth, that emerged after flush pruning.

Shishigashira before pruning. Note the extremely short internodes – really isn’t one.

Shishigashira before pruning. Note the extremely short internodes – really isn’t one.

Shishi after pruning. We cut the leaves nearest the trunk. Since we have another branch nearby, we eliminate the weak shoot. For scale, see my fingers!

Shishi after pruning. We cut the leaves nearest the trunk. Since we have another branch nearby, we eliminate the weak shoot. For scale, see my fingers!

Vine Maple. The overall size of the larger leaf has been reduced to match the smaller leaf.

Vine Maple. The overall size of the larger leaf has been reduced to match the smaller leaf.

The Resurrection

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I have two wisteria that I have been growing for several years. Their varieties are different but they are usually tracking on the same schedule and routine throughout the year. I was a bit alarmed this spring when one blossomed and leafed out as usual, but the other one did nothing. I did see a few balls of green, where a few wimpy flower buds were slowly surfacing – that’s the first thing that you see in spring on a wisteria. The flower buds usually swell to almost golf ball size before elongating. But these were more like a pencil eraser. 

I told my wife that the tree was probably toast, and I was a bit sad as it came from my long time bonsai buddy, Alan Taft. But I left it on the bench and kept watering it, though cautiously. The branches were very dry looking, very dead. I had been having trouble with both wisteria the last two years, as with some other deciduous trees, not being as vigorous as I had hoped, so this was not a complete surprise. But later in the spring, I started to see more little green dots appear on the wood, which was quite unexpected. Then I started seeing more specks and they began elongating. You see them in the first photo. 

Notice the dead buds at the tip of the branch. Those were flower buds last fall. This is happening all over the tree, and once it began, the trees eschewed the few flower buds for foliar growth. It’s growing gangbusters now, maybe growing twice as fast and more vigorously than it ever has. If you look at the second photo, you will see it is crowding everything out on the bench. The other wisteria is to the left, with simple, restrained growth (low fertilizer). The tree in question though, is busting out all over. It usually puts out but a few tendrils a year, but you can clearly see them crawling all over everything at the moment, reaching over to other trees on adjacent benches. You can kind of tell that it’s a semi-cascade by looking where the end of the bench stops, and the tree just keeps on going. 

Now, I have no real explanation for what has happened with this tree, but similar things happen once in a while. Something known or unknown impacts the tree to where it is near death or appears to be. Then it summons all of its power from within and bursts forth with new growth. We have to be careful, as it is expending all its reserves to survive. When it happens, the tree is usually budding back on older wood, many times in a place where we were unable to make it bud previously. It can be fortuitous. We sort of do this in a controlled, predictable fashion when we decandle a black pine, or defoliate a maple tree, and to lesser degree with regular pruning. Rarely though, do we impact a tree beyond where we have total confidence of recovery. I would not induce this on purpose, but it can actually turn out making the tree better in the long run – if it doesn’t die in the process. 

All of this is a long introduction into summer care. What could I possibly be talking about? If you have grown bonsai for even one season, you have probably had the experience of a tree beginning to wilt, and then watering it and watching it perk back up. That’s usually in the spring as a tree is elongating and hasn’t hardened off yet – that is, built the outer protective  

bud.jpg
wisteria.jpg

layer called a cuticle. But then there is that instance during the summer where inevitably there is going to be a tree that gets scorched in the hot sun and acquires a bit of color, like when we get some sunburn ourselves. We just deal with it but it’s not life threatening. Then there is that time when things start to get crispy. That’s bad news. Sometimes it’s just a portion of the tree, or in other cases, the whole shebang. So my admonition is to be patient. If you see the sudden collapse of a tree, don’t panic. Soak it in a tub to quickly get it hydrated. Then stop watering until it starts to get dry. A tree that was healthy before the incident has plenty of reserves to rebuild with. You will likely see some new growth peeking out in a few weeks. 

However, if the tree is slowly going downhill over several weeks and is starting to dry up, the cause is something other than a single let down in watering or over exposure. You will have to discover it quickly and the tree may even be gone at that point. If the branches are starting to desiccate, that’s not a good sign. Moisture is withdrawing and slowly dying back. It is very likely a root issue. It could be a systemic fungus like Phytophthora, which can be hard to deal with. Specific chemicals like Allude, Aliette, and Subdue Maxx, Agri-Fos can help. 

But that is a last resort. Healthy trees and good watering practices are the key here. If it is just looking scorched and yellow/rust colored mottling on the outer portions, it may a fungus like pythium, anthracnose and others. I have long desired to work on a more comprehensive guide, but alas, the time. Check back in the archives of this column for additional info. Just don’t give up hope too quickly. 

Other issues can be self-induced. This is the time of year to evaluate the spring growth and prune where necessary. Saving length where you need it, cutting back where you don’t and slowing the tree down. Your trees may be in different stages of development, so the pruning will change accordingly. 

The thing to remember here is that if you open up the canopy to the interior, those leaves don’t have the same cuticle and solar protection that the outer leaves had. It also opens up the trunk to sun scald, a problem I have encountered myself. So if you thin the tree extensively, think about protecting it in light shade until new leaves grow or existing leaves become acclimated to the new found sunlight. While you are doing the pruning, it’s also a great time to wire your deciduous trees. Just be sure to watch them for cutting in. Enjoy the summer of bonsai.

Scott Elser

Hello, Old Friend

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Several of the articles that I have written over the past couple of years have talked about the development and history of a few of the trees in my collection. I have spoken about a lodgepole pine that I collected out of a ditch on the slopes of Mount Hood. I also talked about the development of a European Beech, first raised by Alan Taft. Then we paid a visit to Liberace, the Engelmann Spruce that my wife, Lisa, rescued from the sell bench, formerly owned by my grandfather. Lastly, we went back to the first public appearance of Ryan Neil, with his master, Mashiko Kimura and another lovely Engelmann. 

My goal in the telling of these tales was to show just how much trees can develop over a length of time. That your trees will get there, if you are patient. 

Most of the trees in my care were developed by myself, or other non-professionals. In fact, I can think of only one azalea and black pine as imports or developed by the Japanese community. The rest are pretty much home grown. Many of them had previous owner from the ranks of BSOP that have passed on. Folks like Tim Boyle, Edris Stryker, and Anne Spencer. That imbues them with some age, character, and history, even if they were not the most glamorous stock to start with. 

Early this spring I began to think about what to display at this year’s BSOP spring show. I had three trees that spent six months last year up at Pacific Bonsai Museum for their Natives exhibit. Since I like large trees, and those took a lot of effort to prepare for the show, these three trees were prime candidates. I put most of my bonsai energy into getting those ready last year, so I wanted to reap some of the benefits of that work for this year’s BSOP show. During the winter, I had touched up the cascading Douglas Fir (See the photo elsewhere in this newsletter). 

Now, the reason that I had worked on it was because it had lots of dead shoots on it. I made the mistake of wiring it in the winter, after it had shut down, and it was not able to repair the areas where needles were removed – or probably a bit of bark in the process. So when it began to grow in the spring, the shoots developed small swollen embolisms that cut off sap flow and the branchlets died. These were all one or two-year-old shoots. Nothing older died. So of course, I repeated this mistake again this year before I learned that timing was the culprit, not my technique. Actually, it was about mid-stream in the wiring – and one of Ryan’s streams, where I switched gears and did not remove any foliage, and just wired. So this year, so far, it is doing much better. I have to mention that this is a Douglas Fir anomaly. I know of no other tree that responds this way. Lesson: Wire Doug Firs in late spring before bud push, not in November. 

But I am digressing a bit. I just had to slip a little technique in there. The tree I really want to talk about is my sole Western Hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla. You have probably seen this tree in the forests and along roadways many times and never known it. It grows in mixed forests in the shadows of Douglas Firs, Western Red Cedar and Sitka Spruce. But from a distance, it looks like a Doug Fir. Just look at the top. If it is drooping over to one side, it’s a Western.

 I collected this tree many years ago in a forested road cut somewhere in the coast range, just a few miles from the ocean. This tree went back to the first National Show and the folks liked it so much they gave it an award. Back then, they wheeled the winners into the Saturday banquet on a cart, covered in a cloth. Dennis Vojtilla reaches over to me and says, Scott, that’s your pot peeking out under the cloth. At first, I thought, who else was using that kind of pot in the show? But it did turn out to be the hemlock. A very humbling experience. 

But that was sooooo long ago, in bonsai terms. I’ve gotten married to a beautiful wife, moved across town, built a new garden, and lived another ten years. Of course, this tree has accompanied me along in this journey, and I tell you, no other tree is so happy to just sit there, humble and consistent, like a Western. It’s like, no, no, I’ll be fine. Go play with your fancy black pines and your fancy maples. I’ll still be here. And it was. 

So, it was with great anticipation of reacquainting myself with the tree that I worked on it last spring, getting it ready for the Natives exhibit. In the intervening years, it had gotten gross wire scars from my neglect. So much so that I had to cut out whole branches. But I got it worked into a really nice form. I had described styling as wanting it too feel like the fresh rain was just dripping off of it. That work paid off as the tree came back from Seattle healthier than when it left. The back branch strengthened considerably. 

Fast forward to April of this year when I thought I would just touch it up for the BSOP show. I had already wired it last year, so no problem. As I began to work on it though, I noticed that every single branch had wire cutting in. We are talking wire that took days to put on now had to be reworked. I took the opportunity to really thin things out and take it back to just a pair of branches at any junction. I cut off whole branches at the trunk and many in the crowded crown area. See last month’s article on the spruce. 

The tree had grown way outside of its intended silhouette. I wired and pruned and was frustrated that I only got so far at a time. Late nights were the norm as I worked in the garage. Finally, I got it done and it looked beautiful. The best I could do, or maybe have ever done. Lee gave me one of the best comments during the show, which was that it looked so American, and lots of open space. But I tell you, that open space will be filled by the time Rendezvous rolls around. The tree is now sitting in a spot where I can see it really well and enjoy it. I began to think about how much joy it brings me to create something like this. And make no bones about it, this tree was created. It was not found. It did not do this on it’s own. But the illusion is that it did. 

The other day I was having lunch with my best friend Tom, who doesn’t do bonsai, but is a painter, so an artist in another respect. We talked about the fact that he might sell a painting hanging in his house if someone asks, for just a pittance. But he can always paint another one. A painting is frozen in time, a bonsai is not. What I can’t do is wind the clock back twenty-five years to when I began this tree and just make another. This tree and I, as well as others in my garden, have been on a long journey together. 

They are not my friends, and I do not talk to them. But I do see them almost everyday. I have cared for them so long, it is hard to imagine life without them. But then I look at the beauty that we have created together and the potential that lies ahead. I can only commit so much time to bonsai. It is still a hobby for me. Seeing the heights to which I can raise a tree, like in this hemlock, gives me impetus to do more. But I see that I need the courage to eliminate trees that still have potential in order to concentrate my efforts on the best of trees. 

As I related to my friend Tom, the funny thing is that as a tree gets better, it takes more time. More wire, more water, more fertilizer, a better pot, maybe. I can never put it on the wall and say, that looks nice, and walk away. It is working on a relationship in a way, just like we do with people. It must be cultivated and cared for. You can approach a tree as a block of marble, ready to be sculpted, or as a friend, to be cherished. The truth seems to lie somewhere in between. 

Over these many years, I am starting to realize the attachments that I have built with my trees. Not something to take lightly, nor to be cast off. More than that, I must be prepared to consider their futures, as most will very likely outlive myself, and thus begin a relationship with yet another bonsai artist. 

And as I start to go down this road, this way of thinking, I am realizing that now, personally, I am on the cusp of actually becoming a bonsai artist and creating something that brings emotion and response from the viewer. That is where I hope you see me going from here, checking out a new horizon, and taking a new path with a few of my good friends, the trees. 

Scott Elser

Three's a Crowd

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We are all in the midst of the repotting season and it seems to take quite a toll on our personal and social time as we descend into a furious frenzy of cutting, sifting, chop-sticking, and mossing.  However, it also happens to be the best time of year to work on many trees that haven’t been repotted. Such is the case for many of our conifers that are just starting to wake up. It is sort of a lull between deciduous and conifers for me. The weather has really wreaked havoc in the system, both my schedule and that of the trees. We are all a bit confused. Things seem to be settling down and on their way to a splendid spring.

The push right now is to get my conifers pruned, if they were not last fall, so that all of the energy can be maximized and focused in the areas desired. This process also balances out the strength of the tree. One tree that I worked on recently is a largish Engelmann Spruce. Many of you are familiar with this tree. It has been seen at our shows once or twice as well as being shown at the Artisan’s Cup in 2015, National Show in New York in 2016, and the Natives Exhibit at the Pacific Bonsai Museum in 2017. Yep, that tree. It sure has been well travelled. It is also the tree that I, or we, styled together about a dozen years ago, when Boon got me into a Golden State workshop with none other Masahiko Kimura, and his young Jedi apprentice, Ryan Neil (Note the essential shell necklace –vintage Neil). What a fortuitous meeting, with my two teachers and Mr. Kimura. But since this tree spent most of last year up in Federal Way at the Natives exhibit, it was time to take stock and prune out any dead tips, cut back where I could and generally reacquaint myself with the tree.

Tree as collected by Randy Knight, 2004

Tree as collected by Randy Knight, 2004

 Golden State workshop with Mr. Kimura and Ryan Neil, 2006

 Golden State workshop with Mr. Kimura and Ryan Neil, 2006

Repotted and ready to go for the workshop

Repotted and ready to go for the workshop

Mr. Kimura, Ryan, Myself, Boon.

Mr. Kimura, Ryan, Myself, Boon.

 
 Final Result

 Final Result

 

When I exhibited the tree at the Artisan’s Cup, it was a last-minute replacement for a tree that dropped out at the last minute from California. As such, it was some really late nights getting it ready for the show. It was already somewhat wired and cutting in. So I reworked the tree and told myself that most of the wire could stay, though I cut out much of the heavier wire for aesthetic reasons and everything held pretty well. But then it was on to New York the next year, with a partial de-wiring, and adding back some detail wire. I worked on it a whole day with Ryan to get the first branch just right as a model to follow and learned much. I finished the tree myself, but I was dissatisfied with the results. There was this sort of gnawing discomfort that it just wasn’t giving the impression that I wanted. However, I was still very proud of the achievement because it was very full and much more developed than most collected spruces. Maybe too much so. The crown was almost a solid helmet of foliage with not quite enough separation between elements. It has fabulous dead wood, but the foliage was rather boring. Still wondering what the future of the tree was, I sent it to New York and back, and then to Pacific for the 2017 season.

Artisan’s Cup 2015

Artisan’s Cup 2015

2016

2016

Fast forward to our current pruning session. As I began looking for back buds to prune back too, I realized there weren’t many. Much fewer than I expected. I think this was partly due to the reduced amount of light at the Museum and less fertilizer during the season (per my instruction, at the time). But as I began to look at the branches, I think there was another big contributing factor. And that is, overcrowding. There were just too many branches to support. The tree grows like a juggernaut, but all of that energy was being dissipated into more and more branches. This is a very good problem to have. It took a good dozen years to get here, but now I realize that it was time to reassess and start thinning things out. While pruning this tree I was very committed to the rule of two. Only allow two branches at any intersection. It could be the trunk and a branch, two larger or two smaller branches, or a large and small combination. But two is going to be it and I was going to be ruthless about it. It was then that I discovered that I had junctures of three and four branches all over the tree. In my desire to maximize the foliage mass for consecutive shows I had inadvertently sacrificed the structural quality of the tree. I was so focused on the creation of nice foliage pads that I didn’t fully reexamine the tree each time I touched it. It is very common to leave three shoots on the end of branch for fullness before a show. But since I had stacked all these shows up in a row, after four years, those shoots turned into ramified branches, which I hadn’t questioned. I also discovered that this was a major factor contributing to wire cutting in at an astronomical rate. Spruce are known for wire marking rapidly and this tree is no exception. The stronger the bend, the more it cuts in. That is very predictable on spruce.

When folks are new to bonsai, they generally fall into two camps. Pruners and Waterers. The Pruners are people who will readily prune their trees down to a stump without blinking an eye. The can leave the tree rather weak and unresponsive until it builds it’s strength back up. Waterers are content to nurture their trees slowly over time. They would prefer to go through a long prayer ritual to the bonsai gods before they are ready to cut off a single shoot. I definitely fell into the former camp and have learned to balance my approach. But this spruce had had enough of nurturing. Now was the time to prune. It was DAMN hard. I spent a lot of time growing those branches. And mostly, they were good branches. I had to weigh many factors. I was not going to keep three, sometimes four, branches at one juncture. So, what to do? Do I keep the two shorter ones? Do I keep a long and short? Do I keep the one on the right or left? So, here is my little hierarchy to make those decisions.

One, keep the branches with live buds. This is so hilariously obvious yet is the one I get caught on all the time. If you have elongating species, like the spruce, and you pinched it the previous season, you won’t necessarily have buds on the tips. Plus, there can be insect damage, overall weakness, etc.… So always check to see if there is a bud. Next, do I need the length? Sometimes I do. At other times, I want to compact and keep it short. In that case, I like to keep a long and short branch. It looks more natural and develops more elegantly. Thirdly, where are the adjacent branches growing? By pruning, will I make a hole, which may actually be desirable for some negative space, or is there a better branch available to take its place? In all cases for this spruce, there was always something available nearby. And finally, can I improve the structure of the tree? Can I eliminate flaws like crossing branches? For a show, I may wire things into position to fill a hole that I would never keep long term, or so I thought, four years ago.

 
 
Freshly pruned but unstyled, 2018

Freshly pruned but unstyled, 2018

 

Now that the job is done, I have a renewed fondness for the tree and vision for the future. It was quite harrowing at first, but now I see a tree once again. Good trees are intimidating, old and large even more so. By pruning, it got older and more tree like, and I now feel as though I can bring it to fulfill the potential it has had all along. The tree looks great and I would have to show you the garbage can full of branches to prove that I pruned anything. Please note how the apex is slowly being moved to the right and that the back branch is finally peeking around the right side. I left all of the wire that was not cutting into branches on the tree to help hold it for this next growing season, but come fall, I am really looking forward to completely de-wiring the tree and restyling it from scratch. I just did not have time now, with preparations under way for our spring show. It is now set up to grow vigorously through this next year and build up strength for a good styling session. There will likely be much more pruning at that time. But at least for now, the strength is balanced and many structural flaws are eliminated. Remember, three’s a crowd.

Scott Elser

Annual Physical

The first and most important thing that I learned from my studies with Boon was that the health and vigor of the tree were preeminent. Without a strong tree, all of the wonderful technique that I was learning was of no use, and maybe harmful to the tree. That was a fact that I soon proved true with a very nice Subalpine Fir. I still miss that tree, as I had collected it with my Grandfather, the person who started me in bonsai. It was so long ago that I can’t accurately recollect the tree’s health before I started. I certainly styled it aggressively, but with no visible cracks or tears. After flushing out with spring growth, it promptly turned brown and collapsed. That was well before Akadama, proper soil, and proper technique, and it was planted into a tall, moisture sucking cascade pot. Since then, I have been working to identify when trees are healthy and strong and able to respond positively to any bonsai technique I apply, whether it’s bending, pruning, decandling, repotting, or even just spraying.

A question that comes up frequently is whether to repot a sick tree to get it healthier. That is pretty much a resounding NO. Think of it this way. You are having some health challenges and the doctors tells you that if you drink more water, get a little more exercise, eat a little better and drop a few pounds you will be just fine. The other option is open-heart surgery, which may or may not be successful. Which would you prefer and what would make you healthier in the end? I personally would not be choosing to go under the knife. So before you repot, ask yourself if instead you can monitor water more closely? Maybe you should be checking morning and evening instead of once a day? Or maybe just paying closer attention each time you water. If it’s lacking moisture, maybe you soak it down twice each watering session to get better saturation. Or maybe it’s backing off until the next round. 

I have been able to really make a difference by paying closer attention to each plant, even the same size species in the same size pot. It really does help. That said, we DO repot in order to build up the strength of an existing tree. That might include moving a tree from a collection container, or a nursery pot into a bonsai container. It may also include moving a tree up or down in pot size to move it along in its development. But the point is to only repot a reasonably healthy tree and giving it what it needs to be successful. 

Another factor in the equation is sunlight. I was in Ashland with the Southern Oregon group awhile back and a gentleman had a very large and wonderful Black Pine. I told him that it could use more sun and he admitted that his yard was mostly shade. Some folks interpreted that to mean that I was saying it was unhealthy. It was not. It was just the right shade of green, and had good buds. But the needles were longish, and more importantly the internodes were very long. 

More sun will actually allow the tree to gather it’s needed resources in a smaller area, which translates to shorter needle and internode length. That also means that the quality of the solar energy the tree is collecting is much higher, enabling it to build the necessary energy to back bud and build a more compact tree. So just getting your tree more sunlight can really boost it’s  energy. The problem can be that you just get way too much sun come July and August, and then it’s time to break out the shade cloth. But the trees will thank you with lush, verdant growth.

The single biggest indicator of tree health coming out of winter dormancy is the size of the new buds. Relative size indicates how much energy the tree has built up. You may have dense foliage, but if the buds are small, the tree is weak. It may have been that the tree put on some great growth the last couple of years, but at the end of last season it ran into troubles. Maybe it got to dry during the summer and weakened the roots, or not enough fertilizer, or it got shaded out. Something happened to stress it out. On the other hand, a tree might have had a rather weak showing in spring, but built up strength in its sparse foliage because the watering, fertilizing, and sun light you gave it were spot on. So, what exactly would that look like? 

The clearest examples are the buds of a Japanese Black Pine. On an untrained or nursery stock tree it’s very easy to compare the branch tips. At the apex they will be a creamy white, with a nice stiff point. There will likely be a very large bud surrounded by many smaller, but equally white buds. Down towards the bottom of the tree, or on the interior, where the buds are likely weaker, they will be a darker color, maybe reddish, with a rounded tip, and much smaller size. There is also likely just a single bud. The difference is very dramatic. 

  Black pine apex buds

  Black pine apex buds

Black pine lower side bud

Black pine lower side bud

That differing bud strength is what we are trying to balance with our pruning and decandling techniques. So pines are really obvious, but many species are not. There are some species that I grow where I cannot see any buds or tell if the branch is alive until they start growing in the spring. That makes things very challenging, but each year my eye gets trained a bit sharper. 

On deciduous trees, you will likely see large, fat buds on the tips and upper portion of the bonsai, but as you work in towards the interior, they start to weaken. You may see internode sites where a microscopic dormant bud exists, but there is no sign of them, and nothing to activate them. Take a look at the fatness of the branches. Shoots which have grown thick and coarse will have many more and larger buds than the thinner and weaker branches. This means that most of the trees strength will be concentrated in those thicker shoots. That may help us if we are trying to thicken the trunk or a certain branch. If not, it really serves to weaken the other branches if not addressed. 

The good news is that those strong shoots indicate that the overall health of the tree is strong. By pruning these strong branches back to one node for opposite branching species, like maples (two buds, one on each side), or two buds for alternating species (most of the other deciduous trees) we can control and even out the branch strength. Leave the weaker branches longer and with more buds. I rarely, if ever, regret cutting out those coarser sections of branches. 

For conifers, foliage is another great indication of health. Remember that you want to look at the total needle mass. That means that roughly ten needles that are 2” long have the same strength and solar capacity as twenty, 1” needles. Make sense? For trees in development, you may have areas that you decandled or otherwise pruned and end up with needles of varying length for the short term. Feel the needles. Are they crisp and cool? That’s a great indication of health, as well as their color. A deeper color relative to the species is stronger. Anything straying towards a yellow or pale color is weaker. 

Strong trees are also occupying the entire pot with roots. This is a great indicator of strength. The denser the root system, the more gas in the tank the tree has for styling work. During this time of repotting, it’s a great time to examine the strength of the root system and make any corrections needed. One of the best indicators of root strength is the amount of water taken up by the tree. During the growing season, if the tree is utilizing all the water you give it at any one time, the tree is in balance and chugging right along.

Here’s to a great growing year ahead! Scott Elser 

All Potted Up and No Place to Grow

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In a follow up to last month’s article on pruning, especially Japanese maples, I received a question from a member about putting shape to some maple seedlings. More specifically, is this a good time of year to do so? My answer is like many things in bonsai. Although this may not be the optimal time of year horticulturally speaking, it’s still a great time to create some movement in trees, so let’s talk about why.

hwt-9_benditnow.png

When you have trees that move a lot of water through their systems, like Japanese maples, the structure that moves all of that water is on a larger scale than plants that move less water. That leads to them being both very rigid and very brittle. Contrast the maple with something like a juniper that moves resources very slowly. The size of the cells and tubes that the sap flows through a juniper are much smaller, so they are able to slip and adjust much more. Let’s just say for example that the juniper cells are an 1/8 inch long and I can bend each one 5 degrees without damage. In one inch I can bend it 8 times, or 40 degrees. Next we have the maple that has cells a ½ inch long. I can only bend it twice in that inch, or a mere 10 degrees. I can’t adjust my branch or trunk nearly as much. Some trees are more flexible just by their nature.

So, say I have a tray of seedlings or rooted cuttings. If I leave those grow for three or four years, it’s likely that they are just going to grow straight up. I am giving them proper health and nutrition and there is nothing that maximizes that more than growing straight up towards the light. But that doesn’t make very interesting bonsai material. So after five years of growing, I find that all of a sudden my maples have long internodes, are a ½ inch thick and are impossible to bend. My only option is to pray that there is a lower branch that can become a new leader, or prune the whole thing way down and hope that it back-buds. Either way, I have lost some valuable growing years. But curiously, the same situation arises with the Juniper. We already said that it’s more flexible, but what we didn’t talk about is strength. Even though the juniper can take a sharp bend, applying enough force to bend a ½ inch juniper in a short space is quite a feat and more than we can usually accomplish.

The better method for raising your own bonsai from an early stage is to bend them right away. The best time is when they are about an 1/8 inch in diameter, no matter how old or what the stage. With some pines, you might be able to take it up to a ¼ inch. You are probably not going to be able to bend them the first year, and it may be up until the third year that you can give them their best initial movement. 

When you do get to that first wiring, we have some things to talk about. First off, how tall you want the final tree to be? If you are working towards a shohin of about 8 inches and you want the trunk to bend three or four times, that means each one of your bends has to be about 2 inches apart. If you want a medium size tree, the curves will be larger and spaced farther apart. 

Starting these medium and larger trees are difficult, as you may not even have enough length to cover the whole trunk line the first go around. That’s OK. We have to start somewhere. Make sure that your movements vary in the length of intervals and angles to create an interesting shape that is interesting in all three dimensions. Also, we may end up with what started as a shohin growing into a larger size. We can make great use of those smaller movements in a larger tree to increase its quality. 

As we grow along, we may also re-evaluate our initial curves. We may look at a tree and say, you know, if I cut here, this will make a really great shohin. Or maybe this shape is not really that pleasing and if I cut here and make a new leader I can build in some taper and make a better shape. Nothing seems to go quite as planned in the life of our trees, so be opportunistic and take advantage of what each tree is offering you. 

The next thing that you need to know is to just let your tree grow. Let the leader and branch tips take off and grow, grow, grow. Remember, you have to grow some new wood in order for those curves to set, and to grow some girth on the trunk. If you wire in the winter, inspect them in April or May to see how they are doing. It may be the right time to remove the wire. If it’s a conifer, you can leave it a little longer, as any cutting in will likely disappear very quickly in the rough bark of the future. For thin barked species like maples, it’s a different story. Scars may visibly last for up to 20 years, so remove the wire before it cuts in too much. I have had many cases where I simply had to cut off the branch because the wire scars were too deep. 

Finally, another word about timing. Now is a great time to wire deciduous seedlings, when you can see their structure really easily. I want to caution about wiring mature maples this time of year and not to overlap the information too much. We talked about the brittleness of maples and it is easy to damage mature branches unknowingly this time of year. It may be better to wire them in early spring when they are in full swing and can repair any damage. The seedlings are more flexible and you have less invested in them. April and May are great times to wire seedlings too, especially when they have the new length of fleshy growth that has not quite lignified yet. It is easier to bend and it has all the rest of the growing season add tissue. The caveat of course, is that you have to work around the leaves. Here’s to some great new bonsai just around the bend.

Scott Elser

Learning from the Landscape

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Last month I took advantage of the fact that there is a small window to prune Japanese Maples, just as their leaves are dropping, so that they won’t bleed. I pruned a few of the bonsai on my benches, but my main targets were the trees in my landscape. When moved to a new house, we inherited a ginormous weeping Japanese maple, front and center in the most prominent area of our yard. It’s probably 15-20 feet across. I was able to cut it back a bit last year, mostly to keep it off the driveway. 

But this was the year that I wanted to get in and do some real structural work. Along the way, I pruned another large maple in the yard, as well as my mother in law’s maple, and another friend’s large specimen. For some reason, after twenty years of pruning this type of tree, things really started to sink in, so I thought I would share some new and confirmed insights. I can now prune with confidence at a fairly feverish pace and the decisions fall easily right into place.

First of all, the most important aspect here is the non-bleeding time of year. I find that a good time is when there are just a few fresh leaves on the tree, but it’s lost all the others. Take a snip and wait just a few seconds. If it bleeds, wait another week. 

As the leaves start to abscise from the tree, the sap is also slowing down to a halt. Otherwise it would be pushing sap out of the points that just lost leaves. The tree then begins to heal over and seal up these areas and the sap re-pressurizes a few weeks later. So, if you prune in December, you get bleeding all over again. It can extremely weaken the tree if you let it bleed profusely. In the spring, it provides entrance for fungi. You can prune safely after the leaves have hardened in the spring, around April or May, but it is very hard to see the overall structure.

Next, and just as important, is the fact that although maples have an opposing leaf structure, those opposing pairs rotate 90 degrees every other pair, making horizontal or vertical oriented buds. I have not really paid all that much attention to this feature in the past, but things really started to click when I did. I now understood why some branches seemed to just reach for the sky and others spread out. It was just they way they started on the main branch.  

Look at the photos. You can see in the first one the orientation of the buds, how they alternate along the branch. In photo two you see an unpruned branch and how the structure is developing into vertical branches and horizontal branches. I no longer prune back to the first node on a branch, but to the one that is oriented in the direction I want. In bonsai, I always prune to the horizontal branches, unless I have a need to create depth. On these weeping landscape trees, I am going for something a little different.  

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Here is the interesting part. Remember those vertically aligned shoots? As I went to prune this year, I noticed that 95% of the dead branches were those that were the bottom half of a pair, the ones facing down. It didn’t matter if the branch was one year or five years old, those were the ones that were getting weak and dying on their own. The tree was educating me and telling me how it likes to grow. It was doing it’s own pruning.

Look at photo two and you will see that the downward facing buds have disappeared on their own. So taking that cue, I began cleaning out those downward branches anywhere I could. It’s a quick way to shorten branches or thin things out. After several seasons and/or several cuts you begin to develop an undulating structure that creates great movement and allows you make foliage pads on a weeping tree.  

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Look at photo three and you can see the effect of this style of pruning. I have been pruning like this for awhile, but now I finally understand that alternating nature, how to use it effectively, and what to expect next year.  

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So my suggestion is to grab your saw and pruners and dive into one of these trees and see what you can learn. There are so many more branches to work with than on bonsai, so much more practice. And if you make a mistake, it’s easy to grow more branches. It’s not so critical as your prized bonsai and you can relax a bit. Take that snip and see if you are still in the window for pruning.

Bonsai Home Waters

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This fall I have been working on the second styling of a very large tree. In fact, it’s the tallest and widest tree I own. It is definitely the hardest to move and is too tall to fit in the back of Lee Cheatle’s van. So, it’s been quite a daunting project to undertake. Way back in 2004, I had the privilege of spending a day in the wild with a few BSOP members, including the world’s foremost yamadori collector, our own Randy Knight. I now know the year, after miraculously finding a photo of the tree. Matt Reel (before he left for Japan) was with us, along with Lee. 

 After a while of scrambling, we spotted this tree and Randy helped me pry it from its rocky perch. It had probably been there a couple of hundred years, growing ever so slowly. Somehow, we got enough roots for the tree to survive and I planted it in a box for several years and then into a bonsai pot. An impossibly large bonsai pot. It’s all I can do to move it from a bench to a cart, let alone carry it. 

In 2014, ten long years after it’s collection, I finally styled the tree with help from Ryan Neil in his Elongating Species course. The tree was fifty inches tall, and had branches and trunks going everywhere. A few branches in the extremities had died over the years, but everything was pretty much intact with lots of branches to work with. 

I obviously had been looking at the tree’s possibilities for a long time and knew that Ryan had something in mind for it. I kept trying to figure out where I could shorten it to make a new top, plus dealing with the branches popping out from the sides that were starting to make their own trunks. How was I going to lower those branches and orient them correctly? 

Then Ryan started in on me, encouraging me to look at it a different way. I started cleaning the tree but wasn’t totally convinced. I heard a voice inside me say, that’s not really how we do it in bonsai. I try to be open to new things, but this is kind of crazy. But as our conversation turned from minutes to hours, I finally had a moment where the light turned on I blurted out to Ryan, Got it! I have been to that place. I grew up there. My job now is to use this bonsai to take you there. I had let my well-developed ideas of bonsai norms occlude my own personal experiences.  

I grew up a rather privileged life. That is to say that I grew up here in the Northwest, on the east side of Portland, the gateway to Mount Hood. I was a Boy Scout with plenty of backpacking in the cascades on the weekends. I climbed Hood twice, and Mount Adams once, spending the night on the mountain itself. My cousin and I bushwhacked the wilds of the Wallowas one summer. My dad and I bowhunted for deer in the high hills opposite of Mount Hood. There is virtually no area that I have not been to at some time or another from Hood River to the Santiam Pass. The mountains were my playground, and usually somewhere near timberline. 

As Ryan continued describing this form of alpine tree, I recognized it as what we call Krummholz. It’s a German term meaning “twisted wood”, which describes the trees surviving at the timberline level – where just a few eke out an existence and are constrained to bow, literally, to the forces of natures. The wind and snow drive them to a spreading structure with multiple trunks and ground hugging forms. In leeward pockets, the trunks can extend a bit higher until sheared by hostile winds. This is the place that I want to take you. That is what the best bonsai do. They take you to a place, a memory, a feeling. And finally, I had that vision in my mind, the tree that I wanted to create. 

Fast forward to 2017. The wire had been on the tree too long, at least in some places. I had already removed some portions as they cut in, but this last year, the tree really took off and almost doubled it’s foliage. Time to rework. I removed the wire in September so that it could recover and start to heal any damage during the fall. It started to bleed some sap from the deeper scars, but not too bad. 

I began to re-evaluate the design, making some tweaks here and there as I wired. This beast has seven apices. Yes. Seven. Just like the like the seven-headed beast in the book of Revelation. The main branch starts to cascade and then turns towards the sky to create one of those apices, so it’s pretty crazy stuff. And now, it’s even budding back on the hundred-plus year old trunk to create new branches. 

It was about then that I had the really big “Aha” moment. After more than 25 years of working with bonsai, I realized that this single tree represented my home waters. That’s the term fishermen use to refer to their local, favorite fishing hole, whether it be a river, stream or lake. The place they go to again and again for a good time and great adventure. It was then that I realized that this tree had been with me during nearly all of the great outdoor adventures of my youth. The Subalpine Fir, Abies lasiocarpa. It’s definitely one of the least used native trees for bonsai, but it was everywhere that I went as a youth. 

The memories started to flood into my mind, taking me to places that had long since grown cobwebs. This tree was there at the timberline when I climbed mountains. It was there while hunting as we crawled through the thickets of the trees that were almost impenetrable. They were there beside the dusty paths as I tramped along the Pacific Crest Trail. Unlike the lofty and much more common Douglas Fir, this was the tree that I could reach out, touch, and brush my pack against. 

In high school, I learned to paint watercolor landscapes. Mountains were my favorite subjects, along with a few extra brush strokes, the trees at timberline. I have been drawing those trees ever since, and now make a living drawing at times, you guessed it, Subalpine Firs. So here is this bonsai, which I have had on my bench for so long and didn’t recognize the significance that it held for my life. It is the one bonsai that can truly meld my love of the outdoors with my passion for creating. It now has the highest of honor in the garden and may be my best contribution to the bonsai world. It certainly has a ways to develop, and I have to find/make/ design a new container for it. The jury is still out on that one, because it also has to be a part of that place that I am sculpting. 

I have included a few photos. I somehow managed to take a photo of the tree before it was removed from the mountains. The large tree, just behind it, makes it more difficult to see. There is a photo after this year’s styling. I really need to go back and reset the branches, especially with info from the photos. After next years Spring growth, I will be able to reduce the length and compact some branches. I didn’t want to push it too much this year. And finally a photo of myself, about 15 or 16, in the Jefferson Wilderness with Subalpines in the background.  

I wanted to share this tree’s story and the connection that I have with it to encourage you to find the same. That’s why I do bonsai – to connect with my environment, my past, and my future through art. You may not have the kind of life experiences that I have to draw upon, but of course, you have your own, and I can’t wait to hear them.

Scott Elser

Pacific Crest Trail, Myself, and Subalpine Firs

Pacific Crest Trail, Myself, and Subalpine Firs

Subalpine Fir being collected in 2004

Subalpine Fir being collected in 2004

Tree after styling in 2017

Tree after styling in 2017

Viva Liberace!

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How many of you have seen this tree at one of our auctions or raffles? Well, not this one exactly, but many a tree just like this have made their way off our benches and into the donation pile. Such was the destiny of this Engelmann Spruce. Many years ago when my grandfather passed away, I inherited most of his bonsai. He’s the one that actually got me interested in bonsai, and he must have dug this up as a seedling on one of our collecting trips. It’s had an interesting life so far. 

2015: Engelmann Spruce recovering from neglect

2015: Engelmann Spruce recovering from neglect